Introduction to Struts 1.x

strutsStruts 1 was the first release of MVC based framework by the Apache Software foundation in May 2000.

In this section we have listed all the tutorials published on our website related to the Struts 1 framework. If you are still maintaining application based on the Struts 1 framework then these struts 1 tutorials will help you in learning the Struts 1 programming

This tutorial is extensive guide to the Struts Framework. In this tutorial we will cover how to develop robust application using Jakarta Struts Framework. This tutorial assumes you are familiar with the web application development with  Servlets,JSP, JDBC and custom tags. 🙂

What is Struts?
Struts Frame work is the implementation of Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern for the JSP. Struts is maintained as a part of Apache Jakarta project and is open source. Struts Framework is suited for the application of any size. You can get the latest version from
For this tutorial we are using jakarta-struts-1.1 and jakarta-tomcat-5.0.4 for this tutorial.

What is Model-View-Controller (MVC) Architecture?
Model-View-Controller architecture is diving components into three different categories Model, View and the Controller. Each component has a unique responsibility and each component is independent of the other component.Responsibilities of the components are

  • Model: Model is responsible for providing the data from the database and saving the data into the data store. All the business logic are implemented in the Model. Data entered by the user through View are check in the model before saving into the database. Data access, Data validation and the data saving logic are part of Model.
  • View: View represents the user view of the application and is responsible for taking the input from the user, dispatching the request to the controller and then receiving response from the controller and displaying the result to the user. HTML, JSPs, Custom Tag Libraries and Resources files are the part of view component.
  • Controller: Controller is intermediary between Model and View. Controller is responsible for receiving the request from client. Once request is received from client it executes the appropriate business logic from the Model and then produce the output to the user using the View component. ActionServlet, Action, ActionForm and struts-config.xml are the part of Controller.

Installing Tomcat:

You need to have Tomcat server installed for this tutorial.For this tutorial we have user jakarta-tomcat-5.0.4. To  test your installation go to your installation directory/bin and issue startup command to run the server. Open browser and type http://localhost:8080/ to test the server. It will display the welcome page. 🙂

Installing Struts Application:

Download latest version of Struts from the official site of Struts Unzip the file into your favorite directory and copy struts-blank.war, struts-documentation.war and struts-example.war from “jakarta-struts-1.1\webapps” directtory into “jakarta-tomcat-5.0.4\webapps” directory.

struts-blank.war is the blank struts application which is useful in creating struts application from scratch. We will use this file to create our web application.

struts-documentation.war contains API and important documents for the struts application development.

struts-example.war is simple MailReader Demonstration Application.





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